Characteristics of Depression – An article series.

There are several types of depression, each with distinct characteristics. Let’s explore them:

  1. Reactive Depression:
    • Triggered by specific life events, such as divorce, loss, or financial difficulties.
  2. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD):
    • SAD occurs during specific seasons, often in winter due to reduced sunlight exposure. Symptoms include fatigue, low energy, and changes in sleep patterns.
  3. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD):
    • Also known as clinical depression, MDD is the most common type. It involves persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities. Symptoms can be severe and impact daily functioning.
  4. Dysthymia (Persistent Depressive Disorder):
    • chronic form of depression lasting for at least 2 years. It is characterized by milder symptoms but persistent low mood.
  5. Cyclothymia:
    • Involves unstable moods, including periods of depression and elation. Not severe enough to be diagnosed as bipolar disorder.
    • Psychotic Depression:
      • Severe depression accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations or delusions.
  6. Prenatal or Antenatal Depression:
    • Occurs during pregnancy and can affect both expectant mothers and fathers.
  7. Postpartum Depression:
    • Occurs after childbirth and affects both mothers and fathers. Symptoms include sadness, anxiety, and difficulty bonding with the baby.
  8. Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depression):
    • People with bipolar disorder experience extreme mood swings. These include depressive episodes (similar to MDD) and manic or hypomanic episodes characterized by elevated mood, increased energy, and impulsive behavior.